As our understanding of the role of CBD in treating pain continues to evolve, research has demonstrated that CBD works by interacting with and modulating the endocannabinoid, inflammatory and nociceptive (pain detection) systems. Studies in mice have found that CBD can interact with neurological receptors in the spinal cord to suppress chronic inflammatory pain. Additionally, CBD may also enhance the effects of AEA, an endogenous cannabinoid that reduces pain. Chronic pain is defined as any pain that lasts longer than several months.
Studies have shown that CBD, often combined with THC, is an effective treatment for a variety of chronic diseases. People can take CBD oil orally by adding a few drops to food or drink or by placing a few drops under their tongue and holding it for up to one minute before swallowing. In one study, participants who received a combination of CBD and THC compounds saw a 40.4 percent decrease in the frequency of their migraine attacks. Epidiolex, which is used for rare forms of epilepsy, is the only FDA-approved CBD treatment.
The effects of CBD administration vary and may depend on the state due to its complex pharmacological profile. In a mouse model with corneal hyperalgesia, CBD produced antinociceptive effects and reduced neutrophil infiltration in wild-type mice without CB2 receptors. The total number of final effects on cell membrane potential was calculated based on the type of Gα proteins coupled to the CBD target GPCR receptors and the ion permeability of those targets, together with the pharmacological action of CBD (e.g., anion ion channel inhibition). CBD may even improve current pain management treatments for sciatica and other hard-to-treat conditions.
Some aches and pains may not be treated with CBD alone, but they may be more effective when combined with THC or Western medications. In a spontaneous canine OA model, CBD increased dogs' mobility and reduced pain without any side effects, according to Gamble et al. If you're not sure which form of CBD is right for you, experiment with a few different types to determine which one offers the most benefits. This effect was mediated by the activation of the serotonergic system through 5HT1a receptors, since WAY100135, a selective 5HT1a receptor antagonist, but not CB1, CB2 or glycine antagonists, prevented the observed effect. A CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, blocked the analgesic effect of Δ9-THC, while AMG9810 (a TRPV1 antagonist) blocked the effects of CBDA.
In clinical trials, Sativex - an aerosol containing equal parts of CBD and THC - was found to be a significant pain reliever for Russo EB cancer-related pain. On the other hand, targets between GPCRs and transporters represent a link between the actions of CBD and the endocannabinoid system due to the high activity of CBD for FABP proteins and allosteric modulation of cannabinoid receptors. The analgesic effect correlated with cannabinoid enhancement of GLYR α3 but not with their binding affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors. Research suggests that cannabinoids such as CBD and ECS may play a role in many body processes including regulating pain.